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Artefact ID264
TM IDTM 61635
Findspot (DEChriM ID)28   (al-Bahnasā)
Writing mediumCodex
Text contentLiterary

P.Oxy. XIII 1596; Gregory-Aland P28; Gregory-Aland 𝔓28

A small fragment from the lower part of a leaf of a papyrus codex containing the Gospel of John 6:8-12 and 17.22. The hand is a medium-sized right slanting semi-uncial, which uses a high point for punctuation, a nomen sacrum, and spaces for pauses. A complete codex page would have measured 13 x 20 cm, see Blumell / Wayment 2015: 101.

Selection criteriaLiterary genre (Biblical), Nomina sacra
Date from250
Date to350
Dating criteria


Dated to the early or middle part of 4th c. in the ed. pr. For the most recent date, see Clarysse / Orsini 2012: 469.

Absolute/relative dateRelative date
Archaeological context

The fragment was found was found among a group of 3/4 c. documents in al-Bahnasā (Oxyrhynchos) during the excavations of Bernard Grenfell and Arthur S. Hunt; see the ed. pr.

Accession number

Los Angeles, Private Collection of Gifford Combs (sold in 2015). (Previously: Berkeley, Badé Museum of Biblical Archaeology Palest. Inst. Pap. 2)


Editio princeps:

· Hunt, Arthur S. and Bernard Grenfell. 1919. The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, part XIII. Published by the Egypt Exploration Society in Graeco-Roman Memoirs. London. 8-10, no. 1596.

Additional bibliography:

· Bell, Lonnie D. 2018. The Early Textual Transmission of John. Stability and Fluidity in Its Second and Third Century Greek Manuscripts. New Testament Tools, Studies and Documents 54. 149-161.

· Blumell, Lincoln H. and Thomas A. Wayment. 2015. Christian Oxyrhynchus: Texts, Documents and Sources. Waco, Texas. Papyrus no. 28.

· Clarysse, Willy and Pasquale Orsini. 2012. "Early new testament manuscripts and their dates: A critique of theological palaeography". Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 88. 443-474.

· Comfort, Philip W. and David P. Barrett. 1999. The complete text of the earliest New Testament manuscripts. Grand Rapids, Michigan. 112-113.

· Elliott, J. K. and D. C. Parker, eds. 1995. The New Testament in Greek IV: The Gospel according to St. John. Vol. 1; The Papyri. Leiden. 44-45.

· Jaroš, Karl. 2006. Das Neue Testament nach den ältesten griechischen Handschriften (CD-Rom). 3992-4000, no. 2.30.

· van Haelst, Joseph. 1976. Catalogue des papyrus littéraires juifs et chrétiens. Paris. Description no. 444.

Sofia Heim, 2021
Suggested citation
Sofia Heim, 2021, "Artefact ID 264", 4CARE database - Fourth-Century Christian Archaeological Record of Egypt,