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Artefact ID332
TM IDTM 61869
Findspot (DEChriM ID)28   (al-Bahnasā)
Writing mediumCodex
Text contentLiterary

P.Oxy. XVIII 2157; Gregory-Aland P51; Gregory-Aland 𝔓51; NT51

A fragment of a papyrus folio containing the Galatians 1:2-10, 13 and 16-20.

The text is written in a squared uncial with diaereses over initial υ- and ι- (l. 5, 21, 43-44 and 49-50) and one marked soft breathing (l. 10). Punctuation is marked by mid-stops and a larger space in l. 11; see ed. pr. 

The fragment supports MS B in reading Κηφᾶν (l. 46) instead of Πέτρον of the Majority text and, but shows closeness with the MSS DFG in Galatians 1:19 where it also preserves an otherwise singular reading; see ed. pr. and Blumell / Wayment 2015: 198. The text also contains several corrections (l. 7, 9, 15) and a haplographic omission in l. 24.

Selection criteriaLiterary genre (Biblical), Nomina sacra
Date from350
Date to450
Dating criteria


Dated to the 4/5 c. by the ed. pr. For the most recent date; see Clarysse / Orsini 2012: 464 and 470.

Absolute/relative dateRelative date
Archaeological context-
Accession number

Oxford, Sackler Library, Papyrology Rooms, P. Oxy. 2157.


Editio princeps:

∙ Lobel, E., C.H. Roberts and E.P. Wegener. 1941. The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, part XVIII. Published by the Egypt Exploration Society in Graeco-Roman Memoirs. London. 1-3, no. 2157.

Additional bibliography:

∙ Aland, Kurt. 1976. Repertorium der griechischen christlichen Papyri: 1. Biblische Papyri: Altes Testament, Neues Testament, Varia, Apokryphen. Neues Testament 51.

∙ Blumell, Lincoln H. and Thomas A. Wayment. 2015. Christian Oxyrynchus: Texts, Documents and Sources. Waco, Texas. Papyrus no. 52.

∙ Clarysse, Willy and Pasquale Orsini. 2012. "Early new testament manuscripts and their dates: A critique of theological palaeography". Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 88. 443-474.

∙ Jaroš, Karl. 2006. Das Neue Testament nach den ältesten griechischen Handschriften (CD-Rom). 4954-4967, no. 3.10.

∙ Swanson, Reuben J. 1999. New Testament Greek Manuscripts. Variant Readings Arranged in Horizontal Lines Against Codex Vaticanus: Galatians. Vol. 6. Wheaton, Illinois.

∙ van Haelst, Joseph. 1976. Catalogue des papyrus littéraires juifs et chrétiens. Description no. 516.

Sofia Heim, 2021
Suggested citation
Sofia Heim, 2021, "Artefact ID 332", 4CARE database - Fourth-Century Christian Archaeological Record of Egypt,