Get Social With Us



Artefact ID338
TM IDTM 32412
Findspot (DEChriM ID)34   (Ǧabal al-Ṭārif)
Writing mediumSheet/roll
Text contentDocumentary

P.Nag Hamm. 70: Letter from Chenophres to Phenpsetymes.

Business letter from Chenophres to his "beloved brother", with "greeting in the Lord" (ἐ̣ν Κ(υρί)ῳ χαίρει̣[ν]). Chenophres requests that Phenpsetymes send him pulses, vegetables and money with the help of an intermediary, his son, named Pebos, and insists on Phenpsetymes doing it quickly. He also asks him to look after Boais and her daughter, and to point out Boais to Pebos when he comes.

Recto: written along the fibres. Verso: address, along the fibres. notes "badly spelled letter with some interesting colloquial language, three new names and a new word" (θαλπίζω).

Selection criteriaChristian terms/formulas/concepts, Nomina sacra, Archaeological context associated with Christian markers
Date from325
Date to375
Dating criteria

Palaeography. Also, other waste papyri recovered from the same cartonnage used to construct the Nag Hammadi codex VII include contracts dated 341, 346 and 348 (PNH 65).

Absolute/relative dateRelative date
Archaeological context

The leather covers of eight of the twelve Nag Hammadi codices found in a sealed jar by Egyptian agricultural workers in 1945 (see ID 23) had been strengthened by cartonnage made of waste papyri. This papyrus comes from the richest of these cartonnages, codex VII.

Accession number

Cairo, Coptic Museum Nag Hamm. VII 10 c


Εditio princeps

• Barns, J.W.B., G.M. Browne and J.C. Shelton (ed.). 1981. Nag Hammadi Codices. Greek and Coptic Papyri from the Cartonnage of the Covers. Nag Hammadi Studies XVI. Leiden, 65-67: no. 70.

Additional bibliography

Bagnall, R. 2018. "The Educational and Cultural Background of Egyptian Monks." In Monastic Education in Late Antiquity, L. Larsen and S. Rubenson (ed.), Cambridge, 75-100 (esp. 85).

• Choat, Malcolm and Maria Chiara Giorda (ed.). 2017. Writing and Communication in Early Monasticism. Texts and Studies in Eastern Christianity 9. Leiden-Boston, 33-36.

Valérie Schram, 2021
Suggested citation
Valérie Schram, 2021, "Artefact ID 338", 4CARE database - Fourth-Century Christian Archaeological Record of Egypt,
External links