Get Social With Us



Artefact ID375
TM IDTM 61620
Findspot (DEChriM ID)28   (al-Bahnasā)
Writing mediumCodex
Text contentLiterary, Subliterary

P.Oxy. X 1229; Gregory-Aland P23; 𝔓23; NT23

Squared papyrus fragment containing the Epistle of James 1:10-12 and 15-18, with possible personal reuse of folio.

The text is written by a practiced hand, and there is only one mark of punctuation (mid point in l. 21) as well as one diaeresis (ϋπομενει l. 12).  The ed. pr. notes a peculiar word division in l. 11 in the word ἀνή|ρ and a correction from ου to ω in l. 1 as well as an inserted καί in l. 7. One unique reading occurs in the text (παραλλαγῆς for the παραλλαγή of the MS).

It has been suggested that the papyrus folio was reused as a type of amulet or rather a lieblingstext, and folded so that l. 11-15 (containing the text "Blessed is he who resists temptation; that upon becoming approved, he will receive the wreath of life") would be visible: see Barker 2010: 136-138, who also places this text into the same context as P91.

The pagination has been preserved and the folio is numbered 2 (verso) and 3 (recto). The text does not contain nomina sacra

Selection criteriaLiterary genre (Biblical)
Date from250
Date to299
Dating criteria

Palaeography. Dated to the 4th c. by the ed. pr. The text has been placed quite early, in the 2nd c. (see Jaroš 2006: 4400-4408) and in the early 3rd c. by Comfort and Barrett (after comparison with P.Chester Beatty X, 3rd c.); see Comfort/Barrett 2001: 111.

For the most recent date (late 3rd c.), see Clarysse / Orsini 2012: 465 and 469.

Absolute/relative dateRelative date
Archaeological context

Accession number

Urbana-Champaign, University of Illinois, G 1229.


Editio princeps:

∙ Hunt, Arthur S. 1914. The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, part X. Published by the Egypt Exploration Society in Graeco-Roman Memoirs. London. 16-18, no. 1229.

Additional bibliography:

∙ Aland, Kurt. 1976. Repertorium der griechischen christlichen Papyri: 1. Biblische Papyri: Altes Testament, Neues Testament, Varia, Apokryphen. Neues Testament 23.

Barker, Don. 2010."The Reuse of Christian Texts: P. Macquarie Inv. 360 + P.Mil.Vogl. Inv. 1224 (P91) and P.Oxy. X 1229 (P23)." Early Christian Manuscripts.  Kraus, Thomas J. and Tobias Nicklas, eds.  Leiden / Boston: Brill. 136-138.

∙ Blumell, Lincoln H. and Thomas A. Wayment. 2015. Christian Oxyrynchus: Texts, Documents and Sources. Waco, Texas. Papyrus no. 23.

∙ Charles, R. H. 1920. Revelation of St. John. ICC, vol. II. Edinbourgh. 448–450.

∙ Clarysse, Willy and Pasquale Orsini. 2012. "Early new testament manuscripts and their dates: A critique of theological palaeography". Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses88. 443-474.

∙ Comfort, Philip W. and David P. Barrett. 2001. The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts: A Corrected, Enlarged Edition of The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts. Wheaton: Tyndale House. 111-114.

∙ de Bruyn, Theodore. 2010. "Papyri, Parchments, Ostraca, and Tablets Written with Biblical Texts in Greek and Used as Amulets: A Preliminary List." From Early Christian Manuscripts: Examples of Applied Method and Approach, Thomas J. Kraus and Tobias Niklas, eds. Lieden / Boston: Brill. 158. 

∙ Jaroš, Karl. 2006. Das Neue Testament nach den ältesten griechischen Handschriften (CD-Rom). 4400-4408, no. 2.52.

∙ Junack, Klaus and Winfried Grunewald, eds. 1986. Das Neue Testament auf Papyrus, Bd I: Die katholischen Briefe, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. 14.

∙ van Haelst, Joseph. 1976. Catalogue des papyrus littéraires juifs et chrétiens. Description no. 543

Sofia Heim, 2021
Suggested citation
Sofia Heim, 2021, "Artefact ID 375", 4CARE database - Fourth-Century Christian Archaeological Record of Egypt,