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Artefact ID736
Findspot (DEChriM ID)18   (Qaṣr al-Dāḫila)
Writing mediumOstracon
Text contentDocumentary
Description 1

Letter from the foreman (keval/ for κεφαλαιωτής) Paham to Phoibamon and others (?) in Coptic (S). A Jacob and a Paul son of Psyros are further mentioned. The same foreman Paham authored 4. The lower part of the ostracon is badly preserved and the lower end is missing. Therefore, the content cannot be established. The text opens with a staurogram.

Selection criteriaChristian symbols/gestures/isopsephy, Coptic language
Date from375
Date to500
Dating criteria-
Absolute/relative dateRelative date
Archaeological context

The ostracon belongs to two groups of ostraca described as follows: "Three were discovered above the floor of the room in which Trench 4 was situated, while the remaining nine were found within the confines of Sondage A related to the flooring and stratified contexts associated with the wall at the east end (i.e., what may be the ‘Roman wall’)." (Gardner 2012: 472). It is not clear to which of the two groups this ostracon belongs.

Accession number

Unknown (the number mentioned above is taken from labels of images).


Unedited; mentioned in:

• Gardner, Iain. 2012. "Coptic Ostraca from Qasr al-Dakhleh." In The Oasis Papers 6: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of the Dakhleh Oasis Project, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, Paola Davoli and Colin A. Hope, 471–74. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Matthias Müller, Victor Ghica, 2021, 2023
Suggested citation
Matthias Müller, Victor Ghica, 2021, 2023, "Artefact ID 736", 4CARE database - Fourth-Century Christian Archaeological Record of Egypt,
External links