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Artefact ID1426
TM IDTM 66871
Findspot (DEChriM ID)35   (Qarāra)
Writing mediumCodex
Text contentLiterary

Schøyen MS 187; Beinecke P. CtYBR 4475; Rahlfs 866: 6 folios of an Exodus codex. The Schøyen pages contain Exodus 4:17-6:12 on two consecutive bi-folios and 7:12-21 on one single page. Dated by its into the first half of the 4th c., it is among the oldest surviving documents of the Exodus. Fragments of the codex are spread across university and private collections, including Yale’s Beinecke Library (Exodus 6:12-27) and the Antonovich Collection in Paris (Exodus 6:28-7:11), which each house a page missing from the Schøyen manuscript. Possibly connected to the codex fragment at the Ashland Theological Seminary (Exodus 10:3-5 & 10:8-9) and the fragments of two anonymous private owners edited in deSilva 2006 & 2007.

Selection criteriaLiterary genre (Biblical)
Date from300
Date to350
Dating criteria


Absolute/relative dateRelative date
Archaeological context

Unknown; claimed to have been found alongside Gospel of Judas (Coptic, “Codex Tchacos”), Letters of Paul (Coptic) and a mathematical treatise (Greek), see Nongbri 2018, 95-96. Acquired by Martin Schøyen in 1988 from Bruce Ferrini; single fragment acquired by Yale in 1996 from the Gallery Nefer (Zurich) of Frieda Nussberger-Tchacos.

Accession number

Oslo, Private collection Schøyen MS 187 + New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Library P. CtYBR 4475 + Paris, Private Collection Antonovich [?]


Editio princeps
• Antonovich, François. 1996. Les metamorphoses divines d'Alexandre. Paris: 224-225; 401-403 (Editor: Olivier Munnich)
• Minutoli, Diletta and Rosario Pintaudi. 2011. "Un codice biblico su papiro della collezione Schøyen MS 187 (Esodo IV 16 - VII 21).” In I papiri letterari cristiani. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi in Memoria di Mario Naldini, Firenze, 10-11 giugno 2010 [Stud.Test.Pap. N.S. 13], edited by G. Bastiniani and A. Casanova. Firenze: Istituto Papirologico «G. Vitelli»: 193-205.

Additional bibliography
• De Troyer, Kristin. 2013. “The textual character of the Exodus Codex of the Schøyen Collection (MS 187; RA 866)”, Analecta Papyrologica 23–24 (2011–2012): 57-79.
• deSilva, David A., and Marcus P. Adams. 2006. “Seven papyrus fragments of a Greek manuscript of Exodus.” Vetus Testamentum 56(2): 143-170.
• deSilva, David A. 2007. “Five Papyrus Fragments of Greek Exodus.” Bulletin of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies 40: 1-29.
• Minutoli, Diletta and Rosario Pintaudi. 2013. “Esodo (IV 16-VII 21) in un Codice Di Papiro Della Collezione Martin Schoyen (MS187)”, Analecta Papyrologica 23–24 (2011–2012): 17-55.
• Nongbri, Brent. 2018. God's Library: The Archaeology of the Earliest Christian Manuscripts. New Haven: Yale University Press, 95-96.
• Nongbri, Brent. 2018. "A Manuscript of Exodus Wandering in the Wilderness." Ancient Jew Review, September 4, 2018.
• Nongbri, Brent. 2021. “Further Thoughts on the Tchacos-Ferrini Exodus.” Variant Readings, March 18, 2018.
• Rahlfs, Alfred, and Detlef Fraenkel. 2004. Verzeichnis der griechischen Handschriften des Alten Testaments. Vol. 1.1: Die Überlieferung bis zum VIII. Jahrhundert. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 271–272, 323, 447–448, Sigel 866.
• Schøyen, Martin. 1999. The Schøyen Collection: Checklist of Manuscripts 1–2867: Compiled by Elizabeth Gano Sørenssen. 15th edition, Oslo, 19.

Victoria G. D. Landau, 2022
Suggested citation
Victoria G. D. Landau, 2022, "Artefact ID 1426", 4CARE database - Fourth-Century Christian Archaeological Record of Egypt,