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Artefact ID25
TM IDTM 107771
Findspot (DEChriM ID)-   ()
Writing mediumCodex
Text contentLiterary, Subliterary

Crosby-Schøyen Codex MS 193 [Schüssler sa 40lit]

Papyrus codex containing Melito, On the Passover; 2 Maccabees; 1 Peter; Jonah; Homily written in Coptic (Sahidic dialect). According to the Schøyen collection website, it is possibly the earliest known complete text of the two books of the Bible, Jonah and 1 Peter. Of the latter there is also a Greek papyrus slightly later, ca. 300, from the same hoard, now in the Vatican. The present 1 Peter might have been copied from a Greek exemplar written before 2 Peter existed, i.e. ca. 60-130.  Texts 2 and 4 are also the earliest witnesses. Text 5 is unique. Probably the oldest Christian liturgical MS. One of the earliest extant MSS in codex form, and the oldest book in private ownership. It is thought to have been copied from an earlier exemplar in Alexandria and then kept at Dishna (Pachomian monastery); however, there is no solid evidence to support this provenance history.

Selection criteriaLiterary genre (Biblical), Literary genre (Theological), Subliterary genre (Liturgical), Coptic language
Date from250
Date to350
Dating criteria

14C dating; contents; comparanda; probable find context (Lundhaug 2020).

Absolute/relative dateRelative date
Archaeological context

Unclear provenance; the codex is thought to belong to the hoard known as the "Bodmer Papyri", consisting of 9 Greek papyrus scrolls, 22 papyrus codices and ca. 7 vellum codices in Greek and Coptic. These MSS are now mainly located in Bibliotheca Bodmeriana, Geneva. Some of the documents were reportedly found at Ǧabal Abū Mannāʿ near Dishna (Upper Egypt) in 1952 (part of the “Dishna Papers” alongside several other Bodmer Papyri), possibly the location of a Pachomian monastery, see Robinson 2011, Lundhaug 2018.

Accession number

Oslo, Private collection Schøyen MS 193.

sa 40lit (Schüssler)


Editio princeps

• Goehring, James. 1990. The Crosby-Schøyen Codex Ms 193 in the Schøyen Collection. Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 521. Subsidia 85, Leuven: Peeters. 

Additional bibliography

• Fournet, Jean-Luc. 2015. "Anatomie d'une bibliothèque de l'Antiquité tardive: l'inventaire, la faciès et la provenance de la 'Bibliothèque Bodmer'." Adamantius 21: 8-40.

• Lundhaug, Hugo. 2018. “The Dishna Papers and the Nag Hammadi Codices: The Remains of a Single Monastic Library?” In The Nag Hammadi Codices and Late Antique Egypt, edited by Hugo Lundhaug and Lance Jenott. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. 329-386.

• Lundhaug, Hugo. 2020. "The Date of MS 193 in the Schøyen Collection: New Radiocarbon Evidence." Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 57: 219-234.

• Nongbri, Brent. 2014. "The Limits of Palaeographical Dating of Literary Papyri: Some Observations on the Date of P.Bodmer II (P66). " Museum Helveticum 71, 1-35: 23.

• Pietersma, Albert and Susan Comstock. 2011. "Two More Pages of Crosby-Schøyen Codex MS 193: A Pachomian Easter Lectionary?". Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 48: 27-46.

• Robinson, James M. 2011. The Story of the Bodmer Papyri: From the First Monastery's Library in Upper Egypt to Geneva and Dublin. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books.

• Schüssler, Karlheinz. 1991. Die katholischen Briefe. Corpus Scriptorium Orientalium Christianorum 528. Scriptores Coptici 45.  Louvain: Peeters.

• Schüssler, Karlheinz. 1996. Das sahidische Alte und Neue Testament sa 21–48, Biblia Coptica I/2, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 72-73 [sa 40lit].


Mary Jane Cuyler, Matthias Müller, 2020, 2021
Suggested citation
Mary Jane Cuyler, Matthias Müller, 2020, 2021, "Artefact ID 25", 4CARE database - Fourth-Century Christian Archaeological Record of Egypt,