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Artefact ID298
TM IDTM 61636
Findspot (DEChriM ID)28   (al-Bahnasā)
Writing mediumCodex, Sheet/roll, Uncertain
Text contentLiterary

P.Oxy. VIII 1079; P.Lond.Lit. 219; Gregory-Aland P18; Gregory-Aland 𝔓18; NT18

A papyrus fragment containing parts of the Exodus 11: 26-32 on the recto (TM 62314 / LDAB 3477), as well as parts of the Book of Revelation 1.4-7 on the verso (TM 61636 / LDAB 2786). The text of the recto appears to predate the text of the verso; see Blumell / Wayment 2015: 91.

The original format of the fragment is difficult to discern. It has previously been argued that the fragment belonged to a codex (see Nongbri 2013: 77-88). This has since been contested, and the fragment containing the Book of Revelations is assumed to belong to a repurposed early Christian bookroll; see Malik 2019: 94-102.

A textual point of interest is the reversal of word order in Revelation 1.6. Here, differing from the standard attestation, the phrase reads τὸ κράτος καὶ ἡ δόξα "the power and glory".

Selection criteriaLiterary genre (Biblical), Nomina sacra
Date from200
Date to299
Dating criteria

Palaeography. Dated to the late 3rd / early 4th. c. by the ed. pr. For the most recent date, se Clarysse / Orsini 2012: 469.

Absolute/relative dateRelative date
Archaeological context-
Accession number

London, British Library, Pap 2053 vo.


Editio princeps:

∙ Hunt, Arthur S. 1911. The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, part VIII. Published by the Egypt Exploration Society in Graeco-Roman Memoirs. London. 13-14, no. 1079.

Additional bibliography:

∙ Aland, Kurt. 1976. Repertorium der griechischen christlichen Papyri: 1. Biblische Papyri: Altes Testament, Neues Testament, Varia, Apokryphen.  Berlin. Neues Testament 18.

∙ Blumell, Lincoln H. and Thomas A. Wayment. 2015. Christian Oxyrynchus: Texts, Documents and Sources. Waco, Texas, no. 24.

∙ Brown, Michelle. 2006. In the beginning. Bibles before the year 1000. Washington D.C., 258-259.

∙ Clarysse, Willy and Pasquale Orsini. 2012. "Early new testament manuscripts and their dates: A critique of theological palaeography". Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 88, 443-474.

∙ Comfort, Philip W. and David P. Barrett. 1999. The complete text of the earliest New Testament manuscripts. Grand Rapids, Michigan, 93-95.

∙ Jaroš, Karl. 2006. Das Neue Testament nach den ältesten griechischen Handschriften (CD-Rom). 4713-4717, no. 2.62.

∙ Malik, Peter. 2018. "The Greek Text of Revelation in Late Antique Egypt: Materials, Texts, and Social History". Zeitschr. für antikes Christentum 22, 404-405.

———. 2019. "P.Oxy. VIII.1079 (18): Closing on a ‘Curious’ Codex?". New Testament Studies 65 (1).  94-102.

∙ Milne, H. J. M. 1927. Catalogue of the Literary Papyri in the British Museum. London (P.Lond.Lit.) descr. no. 219. 

∙ Nongbri, Brent. 2013. "Losing a Curious Christian Scroll but Gaining a Curious Christian Codex: An Oxyrhynchus Papyrus of Exodus and Revelation". Novum Testamentum 55, 77-88.

∙ van Haelst, Joseph. 1976. Catalogue des papyrus littéraires juifs et chrétiens. Paris, descr. no. 559.

∙ Wessely, C. 1924. Les plus anciens monuments du christianisme écrits sur papyrus. Vol. 2. Paris, 465-466.

Sofia Heim, 2021
Suggested citation
Sofia Heim, 2021, "Artefact ID 298", 4CARE database - Fourth-Century Christian Archaeological Record of Egypt,