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Artefact ID331
TM IDTM 32416
Findspot (DEChriM ID)34   (Ǧabal al-Ṭārif)
Writing mediumSheet/roll
Text contentDocumentary

P.Nag Hamm. 76: Letter from Makarios to Sansnos.

Very fragmentary letter addressed to "my beloved son Sansnos" ([τῷ ἀγ]απητῷ υἱῷ) from a certain Makarios, with greetings in the Lord (ἐν Κ(υρί)ῳ χαίρειν). Almost nothing is kept except the mention of a woman and the name of Syros.

Recto written along the fibres; Verso: faint traces of ink no longer legible.


Sansnos is most likely to the same person as the priest in P.Nag Hamm. 77-78, the monk in P.Nag Hamm. 72 or the "beloved father" in P.Nag Hamm. 68, see M. Choat (in Choat and Giorda 2017: 35-36); about the letters addressed to him, see also Bagnall 2018: 80-85.

Selection criteriaChristian terms/formulas/concepts, Nomina sacra
Date from325
Date to375
Dating criteria

Palaeography. Also, other waste papyri recovered from the same cartonnage used to construct the Nag Hammadi codex VII include contracts dated 341, 346 and 348 (P.Nag Hamm. 65).

Absolute/relative dateRelative date
Archaeological context

The leather covers of eight of the twelve Nag Hammadi codices found in a sealed jar by Egyptian agricultural workers in 1945 (see ID 23) had been strengthened by cartonnage made of waste papyri. This papyrus comes from the richest of these cartonnages, codex VII.

Accession number

Cairo, Coptic Museum Nag Hamm. VII 17 c


Editio princeps

• Barns, J.W.B., G.M. Browne and J.C. Shelton (ed.). 1981. Nag Hammadi Codices. Greek and Coptic Papyri from the Cartonnage of the Covers. Nag Hammadi Studies XVI. Leiden, 72-73: no. 76.

Additional bibliography

• Bagnall, R. 2018. "The Educational and Cultural Background of Egyptian Monks." In Monastic Education in Late Antiquity, L. Larsen and S. Rubenson (ed.), Cambridge, 75-100.

• Choat, Malcolm and Maria Chiara Giorda (ed.). 2017. Writing and Communication in Early Monasticism. Texts and Studies in Eastern Christianity 9. Leiden-Boston, 33-36.

Valérie Schram, 2021
Suggested citation
Valérie Schram, 2021, "Artefact ID 331", 4CARE database - Fourth-Century Christian Archaeological Record of Egypt,