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Artefact ID355
TM IDTM 61619
Findspot (DEChriM ID)28   (al-Bahnasā)
Writing mediumCodex
Text contentLiterary

P.Oxy. LXV 4449; Gregory-Aland P100; 𝔓100

A larger sized papyrus fragment containing 26 lines of James Epistle 3:13-4:4 and 4:9-5:1. This fragment is the earliest witness to these verses; see ed. pr.

The pagination (pp. 6-7) has been preserved in the upper margins. This advanced position of the text of James suggests that the codex originally contained the Catholic Epistles, and if the suggestion is accurate, this fragment posits the earliest witness to the Catholic epistulary codex; see Head 2000: 14. 

The hand is a reformed documentary hand that is sloping on the recto, yet upright and rounded on the verso, and contains a plentitude of errors (ακαστασια for ἀκαταστασία in 2.16 and νον for νόμον in 4:11) and iotacisms/etacisms (3:14, 15, 4:1, 9, and 11), several diaereses and one instance of a diastole (αλ’λα, l. 9 verso), as well as an  correction in l. 5 (recto) performed by the original scribe; see Blumell / Wayment 2015: 134.

The text overlaps slightly with P74 (P.Bodmer XVII, 6/7 c.) and preserves two singular readings; in 4:14 (where the text omits an article before ζωή) and in 4:3 (αἰτεῖτε for the αἰτεῖσθε of the MSS).

Selection criteriaLiterary genre (Biblical), Nomina sacra
Date from200
Date to299
Dating criteria

Palaeography. Dated to the 3/4 c. by the ed. pr. on the basis of comparison with P.Oxy. LXV 4445 (3rd c.).

Absolute/relative dateRelative date
Archaeological context-
Accession number

Oxford, Sackler Library, Papyrology Rooms, P. Oxy. 4449.


Editio princeps:

∙ Haslam, M.W., A. Jones, F. Maltomini, M.L. West, W.E.H. Cockle, R.A. Coles, D. Montserrat and J.D. Thomas, et al., eds. 1998. The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, part LXV. Published by the Egypt Exploration Society in Graeco-Roman Memoirs. London. 20-25, no. 4449, plates no. 2 and 3.

Additional bibliography:

∙ Blumell, Lincoln H. and Thomas A. Wayment. 2015. Christian Oxyrynchus: Texts, Documents and Sources. Waco, Texas. Papyrus no. 34.

∙ Clarysse, Willy and Pasquale Orsini. 2012. "Early new testament manuscripts and their dates: A critique of theological palaeography". Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 88. 443-474

∙ Comfort,  Philip W. 2005. Encountering the Manuscripts: An Introduction to New Testament Paleography & Textual Criticism. Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman & Holman Publishers. 75, 186.

∙ Comfort, Philip W. and David P. Barrett. 2001. The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers. 632–635.

∙ Jaroš, Karl. 2006. Das Neue Testament nach den ältesten griechischen Handschriften (CD-Rom). 4419-4433, no. 2.54.

∙ Parker, David C. 2000. "A New Oxyrhynchus Papyrus of Revelation: P115 (P. Oxy. 4499)". New Testament Studies 46 (2). 159-174.

Sofia Heim, 2021
Suggested citation
Sofia Heim, 2021, "Artefact ID 355", 4CARE database - Fourth-Century Christian Archaeological Record of Egypt,